Environmental and natural resource economics. Another example is that the right to use timber has traditionally given de facto rights to use (or degrade) other connected resources such as clean air or water. Tax cuts and rebates are used to return money to consumers and boost spending. Despite the fact that mountain and highland forests play a key role in watershed protection, the majority of benefits from a protected watershed accrue to downstream users, not to the local communities who maintain the forests. The goal of this report is to inform strategies that other communities and the federal government can use to improve economic outcomes for Canada's First Nations. Preston, L., ed. Consequently, they have no incentive to invest in watershed and forest conservation. The term has been used frequently in the 20th and 21st centuries, but the concept has existed in the West for far longer. Consumption and production patternsEconomic sector/major group. Mountains of the world: water towers for the twenty-first century. The Raw Land Development Process: How To Develop Land In 6 Steps. In some cases, more effective resource management can be achieved through privatization or secure tenurial rights. The electronic conference, held in 1996, was hosted by the Mountain Forum, a global electronic network of individuals and organizations involved in mountain conservation and development. At these colliding, compressing boundaries, rocks and debris are warped and folded into rocky outcrops, hills, mountains, and entire mountain ranges.. for their biological diversity, Bioresources Development and Conservation Programme, Cameroon, Bilateral and multilateral assistance given to countries in need of financial E-mail address: [email protected]. Predicting global change impacts on mountain hydrology and ecology: integrated catchment hydrology/altitudinal gradient studies. right to develop a piece of property, Conservation easements in Vermont, United States, Legal rights to use water resources which can be traded on the market. The City was facing the possibility of being forced by the federal Environmental Protection Agency to install a water filtration system at a cost of US$6 billion. Do you effectively manage the most limited resources in your life? In economic terms, public goods are defined as those from which other users cannot be excluded and whose consumption by one individual or group does not diminish the amount available for others (Tietenberg, 1996). Many studies attribute South Korea’s structural transformation to policy reforms aimed at opening the country to foreign markets. The conference and the report highlight a number of enabling conditions and characteristics relating to the social and economic policy which has contributed to the successful implementation of mechanisms. The analysis of contributions to the electronic conference, Investing in Mountains, has shown that effective and lasting mechanisms are being devised to maintain environmental services and sustainable resource flows from mountains to the areas below. 6.2 How could water be used more efficiently and sustainably? Energy resources for remote highland areas. 3. It was therefore assumed that sustainability would be achieved through strategies which reverse the flow of benefits and provide an equitable share to mountain people as an incentive for continued stewardship. Kathmandu, ICIMOD. Then economic development can be achieved by enlarged economic scale and optimized economic structure. 1997. Further progress in ensuring that sustainable mountain development is not only a policy imperative but also a concept of practical relevance to all who depend on the mountains will require the mobilization and long-term commitment of stakeholders in all sectors worldwide. Mountains are an integrated part of a much larger system. Lynelle Preston is a programme officer at the Asian Regional Office of The Mountain Institute in Kathmandu, Nepal. As is recognized in Agenda 21 as a whole, the private sector also has a major role to play, yet it has not been particularly well integrated in the implementation of Chapter 13. Mountains are areas of land that are much higher than the land surrounding them. How do you develop strategies? New York, USA and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. Also known as rifting, this process occurs when rocks on one side of … Financial resources, trade and investment, economic growthEconomic sector/major group. Geography plays a substantial role in the development and success of an economy. Rome. The landforms have social, ecological, historical, political, and religious signific… Plateau mountains, such as the Catskills, are formed from the erosion of … Effective monetary policy. support, Money invested at the national level to provide a long-term source of Volcanic mountains , like those of the Hawaiian Islands, for example, form from molten rock that erupts through the planet's crust and begins piling up. Some of the goods and services provided by mountain environments, such as timber, hydropower and minerals, have a measurable economic value. 1990. These are the different types of resources based on various factors: Following the Coaching Process. Brugger, G. Furrer, B. Messerli & P. Messerli, eds. However, if sustainable quantity and quality are to be assured, downstream users must begin to assume a larger share of the true costs of water by paying for the maintenance of watersheds. FAO. Fisher, J.F. Another major difficulty in valuation is that mountain resources are themselves inherently complex and interrelated so that they constitute a joint product rather than an single one. Currently, nearly all the oil produced in Western Canada goes to one market, … Although being in a committed, bonded relationship can enrich your life, feeling unable to function without another person could lead to a problem like Relational Dependency. New York, USA and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. The principal factor affecting the development of an economy is the natural resources or land. Even more important, without adequate empowerment and control, they may be unable to prevent overexploitation by others. A business plan is a tool that provides communication, management and planning information to investors, employees, local communities and business owners (see reference 1). Investing in mountains: innovative mechanisms and promising examples for financing conservation and sustainable development. 1996. Annapurna Conservation Area Project. I - Assessment summaries and management strategies. These factors should be incorporated into the design of mechanisms to ensure sustainable resource use in mountain areas. Mountains of the world: a global priority. Mountains often serve as geographic features that define natural borders of countries. source of funding, Warm Springs Indian Reservation Trust, Oregon, United States, Wolf Compensation Fund, Rocky Mountains, United States, Use of private sector funds for conservation, Shore Trust Bank, Washington, United States, Recreational Equipment, Inc., United States, A fuller understanding of land-use and ownership patterns is fundamental for mountain conservation and development. Yet information and networking are only the means to an end, and these and other resources must be carefully coordinated and harnessed, building on the long-established role of mountains as cradles of innovation. Price, M.F. Fold mountains are created where two or more of Earth’s tectonic plates are pushed together. Mountain tourism in Himachal Pradesh and the Hill Districts of Uttar Pradesh. Tax cuts and rebates are used to return money to consumers and boost spending. As a result of the complexity of mountain resources and the limitations of traditional pricing approaches, the resource value is typically not reflected in the product price. When it comes to regions of the world, developing countries have not quite reached economic maturity, although there's a wide array of different definitions. Messerli, B. These revenues contribute to services that benefit all Canadians. Table 1 describes each of the mechanisms and the associated case studies. Mountain research in Europe: an overview of MAB research from the Pyrenees to Siberia. As a result, natural assets are flowing downhill at unsustainable rates and mountain communities are becoming increasingly marginalized. Ives, eds. The fact of the matter remains: undeveloped real estate has the ability to deliver the same consistent cash flow as any other type of investment opportunity.. Fortunately for investors, raw land is … It was shown that conservation, which ensures protection of the watershed, constitutes the "highest and best use" of the area. New York, USA, Harper and Collins. Franklin, USA, The Mountain Institute/FAO. You can also become involved in local politics (if you're old enough to vote), or support public lectures or seminars in your area. Information for decision-making and participation in international cooperation for an enabling environmentEconomic sector/major group. Denniston, D. 1996. An environmental valuation study conducted by the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project (SNEP) in northern California, United States demonstrates that it is possible to measure and place economic value on mountain resource flows which traditionally have not been assessed. Introduction to mountains: Mountains can be explained as landforms that rise well above the surrounding land for a limited area in the form of a peak. 43. Mountain wood provides timber for local use and export. The first challenge, therefore, is to identify and value resources as accurately as possible. 1997. 1997. ILRI. A good view, however, can be a double-edged sword. The ground can either be sub ducted or wrinkle to form mountains or hills. Indeed, the export-oriented policies of South Korea are one of the most important factors of its success: South Korea is now one of the top 10 exporters in the world, and its exports as a percentage of GDP increased from 25.9 percent in 1995 to 56.3 percent in 2012.3 Two additional factors have contributed to th… Further analysis identified three factors that appear to be essential to the success of each of these case studies: more complete valuation of mountain resources to capture the costs of multiple resources; increased ownership, rights and responsibility for mountain resources; and introduction of incentive structures to foster multiple stakeholder-driven processes in the design and implementation of solutions. The ultimate goal is to increase investment in resources and people, thereby contributing to more economically sustainable use of globally significant mountain resources. The average farm receives about US$75 000 for improvements such as cement manure pipes, fencing to improve cattle feeding, and riverside tree planting. This is possible precisely because incentive structures have been implemented in each of the examples so that it is in the individual and collective best interest for stakeholders to continue working together. Furthermore, many types of stakeholders participate, mostly on a voluntary basis with little need for external control or enforcement. FAO, as Task Manager for Chapter 13, has a vital role in catalysing and linking these various initiatives, in collaboration with regional and global structures such as CIP, ICIMOD and the Mountain Forum. The electronic conference and report, Investing in Mountains, began with the premise that mountain resources are flowing downhill at unsustainable rates with little or no reinvestment in the resources or the mountain communities. 1997. You will be surprised how creative and innovative people can be if you give them a chance. If people of a nation are not being fairly treated by those in authority over them, the entire structure (from the citizens to the president) will fail to reach any form of prosperity because peo… Mountains of the world: a global priority. They develop the available natural elements and transform them into ‘resources’ for use. Whether starting up a new ecotourism venture or changing the structure of an existing business, a business plan will help guide your efforts. Some mountain ranges, like the Himalayas, are still growing. As stated in the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) report of the third session: UN Commission on Sustainable DevelopmentReport, 1995, THE ROLE OF MOUNTAIN COMMUNITIES AS STEWARDS. Under the agreement, the participating farmers must entice at least 85 percent of the 400 farmers in the watershed to join the programme. Mountains are also becoming recreational refuges from crowded cities for the tourist elite. Article Table of Contents Skip to section. El desarollo sostenible de montañas en América Latina. In fact, human beingsthemselves are a part of the natural resources. Deregulation relaxes the rules imposed on businesses and have been credited with creating growth but can … Banskota. Economic benefits are usually measured in monetary terms and may include: income from employment in the sector; the value of the production of goods and services from forests; and the contribution of the sector to the national economy, energy supplies and international trade. Clean air and biodiversity are classic examples. Ives, J.D. Performance coaching is a powerful tool when managers take advantage of its usefulness. IGBP Report No. in the Alps. Good drainage is important, as well as contour and grading. E-mail address: [email protected], Morrow, C. 1996. Integrated planning and management of land resourcesCross-sectoral theme. Rome, FAO. Stone, P.B., ed. As air is forced over higher ground, it cools, causing moisture to condense and fall as rain. Proceedings of the Final Trento Session. To create a low inflationary framework, it requires: 1. Pippen system of generating revenue from tour operators, India, Fees charged for the right to hunt and fish, Fees attached to the price of a good or a service, Lodge taxes in Langtang National Park, Nepal, Fees channelled back to protect the resource being used, New York City Watershed Agricultural Program. given a Central Bank independence to control inflation thr… Therefore, unsustainable practices upstream necessarily affect those living below. Well documented project results can help you in getting support from a range of stakeholders and donors. Water from mountains is also used to generate hydroelectric power. This study concluded that water resources are by far the most valuable economic resource, despite the popular perception that timber and grazing are the two most highly valued resources within the Sierra Nevada ecosystem. limber (Finland)... ... and tourism (Nepal), have measurable economic value, INVESTING IN MOUNTAINS: INNOVATIVE ECONOMIC SOLUTIONS. The endorsement of Chapter 13 of Agenda 21, entitled Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development, at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), acknowledged that mountains are often net exporters of globally significant natural resources to the lowlands below. Kathmandu, ICIMOD. 1995. However, with this "ownership" should come a set of responsibilities to the interconnected resources, even those that have not been clearly defined. Unless mountain communities are empowered as critical stewards of irreplaceable natural assets and are given secure ownership and usage rights, access to information and decision-makers, and improved economic standards of living, they may be forced to exploit short-term extractive opportunities and thereby deplete globally significant resources. SNEP. These proposed options illustrate that communities in both upstream and downstream areas increasingly recognize the unintended negative consequences from unsustainable mountain resource use, and that they are creating and implementing innovative responses aimed to reverse and mitigate adverse effects. FAO Forestry Paper No. Poverty Stoplight is currently being used in 18 countries in Latin American, Africa and Asia, with the private sector showing interest in … The Trans Mountain Expansion Project will help make sure Canada gets full value for its oil. ARPE/CIAPP. As identified by the global NGO Consultation on the Mountain Agenda. These include pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, and bowl-shaped cirques that can contain lakes. Preston, L., ed. Sustainable development of fragile mountain areas of Asia. Ives, eds. In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.. Macroeconomic Stability Macroeconomic stability would involve a commitment to low inflation. 1996. Others, like the Appalachians, saw their heyday hundreds of millions of years ago and have been weathering away ever since. develop the Stay Independent brochure. Ways # 2. & Bugmann, H., eds. Governments in emerging economies have, over the decades, tried many different policy agendas to stimulate development, accelerate growth, alleviate poverty, and achieve any number of other goals to mixed success. Fold mountains are created through a process called orogeny.An orogenic event takes millions of years to create a fold mountain, but you can mimic … Paris, UNESCO and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. Beckhardt, L. 1996. Discussion Paper MEI 95/6. For developing countries, the situation is more mixed and levels of protection generally remain higher than those in the industrial countries. Sustainable Mountain Development is also the subject of Chapter 13 of Agenda 21, which notes that mountains are an important source of water, … There is, however, still strong disagreement on how governments should intervene. At the same time, it must accompany necessary measures to support higher resource use efficiency and improved ecological environment. Erdkunde, 50: 317-327. With the advent of new technologies, population increase and development pressures, the magnitude of these resource outflows has increased dramatically. Strategic approaches to freshwater managementCross-sectoral theme. Certain restrictions apply to the use of water, Fees charged by a government for use of a national resource, Mountaineering royalty fees in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, Fees charged on entry into a protected area, Fees charged to the tour operator rather than the tourists. The new economy demands a shift to an entrepreneurial mindset that goes beyond the scope of work in your job description. Addis Ababa, International Livestock Research Institute. In B. Messerli & J.D. Volcanoes also form mountains and periodically erupt – scraping clear the landscape. The boundary can shift and the island will be pulled under (sub ducted). Chapter 13 has been the impetus for one of the most innovative initiatives to emerge from Agenda 21 - the Mountain Forum. 1990. In mountains such as the Andes and Himalayas, terraces (steps) have been cut into the hillsides to allow crops such as vines and fruit to be grown. As Narpat Jodha (1996) points out. Chapter 13 in action 1992-97 - a task manager's report. 1995. Increasing exports ranks among the highest priorities of any government wishing to stimulate economic growth. Atmosphere, energyCross-sectoral theme. In mountainous areas, ownership of land I and natural resources spans the whole spectrum from private to common to state, with an overlay of traditional usage rights and responsibilities that is not linked to ownership. & Williams, P.W. Highland people typically suffer from insecure rights to ownership, access and use, and have little control over the very resources they essentially manage. The third key element of successful mechanisms to protect mountain environments is the design of incentive structures that foster stakeholder-driven processes. This is a validated fall risk self-assessment tool that can be used in clinical or community settings to raise awareness about fall risks as well as help older adults begin to discuss this sensitive topic with their health care providers. Mountains play a critical role in the water cycle by capturing moisture from air masses; when this precipitation falls as snow, it is stored until it melts in the spring and summer, providing essential water for settlements, agriculture and industries downstream - often during the period of lowest rainfall. Moreover, traditional downstream beneficiaries are also adversely affected, and no longer receive the benefits of indirect environmental services they previously enjoyed. toward place-based approaches to economic development can go by various names. Undocumented immigrants pay an average of $11.64 billion in state and local taxes a year. Thus, the redirection of these funds provides incentives for upstream farmers to conserve the watershed which ultimately reduces the costs to the end user. Develop a business plan. The Appalachian Mountain range. Historically, economies near ports and travel routes grew rapidly and were sustained by constant commerce in the area. 1992. Industry, SEVENTH SESSION: 1999Sectoral theme. During recent years, political and institutional momentum has been building up to develop policies and mechanisms to mobilize more financial assistance for the conservation and sustainable development of the world's mountainous regions. New York, USA and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. For example, forested watersheds not only provide clean water and forest products, but they also provide habitat for wildlife and erosion control, recreational opportunities, clean air and, in many places, sacred significance for surrounding populations. Lima, CONDESAN/CIP/FAO. For centuries mountain ecosystems and communities have played a critical role in maintaining a sustainable flow of mountain resources to the plains below. For example, the cost of cutting a forest must include the full economic value of the trees, plus the relinquished benefits of clean air, pure water, wildlife habitat and other non-tangible values derived from that forest ecosystem. Chapter 13 has been the catalyst to much debate, and many governments and organizations have contributed significant financial and other resources to activities contributing to its implementation. Berkeley, USA, University of California Press. Reviewer comments. New York City Watershed Agricultural Program. Many of these are particularly relevant to Chapter 13 (see Box). Oceans and seasCross-sectoral theme. Mountain Agenda. According to the UNGASS final document, all countries are expected to have prepared national strategies for sustainable development by 2002, involving all interested parties and integrating economic, social and environmental objectives. Mountains stand as one of the most remarkable geological landforms in the world and often characterize the region in which they are located. products, Hindelang Nature and Culture Programme, Bavaria Ecotourism marketing Forestry is a key economic activity with the planting and harvesting of trees e.g. Mountain Agenda: environmentally sustainable and equitable development opportunities. But mountains can also form in other ways. Agricultural machinery is difficult to use and there is a very short growing season. UNGASS also defined a programme of work for CSD for the period 1998-2002. Furthermore, while secure property rights may provide incentives for sustainable management, there may be no incentives to prevent downstream effects such as water polluted by runoff. A train glides past Switzerland's snowcapped mountains, one way travelers can see the world while reducing their carbon footprint. Rather, stakeholders are often given an opportunity to participate in decisions regarding the resource use which instills a sense of responsibility. The physical features of mountain environments are complex and so also are political and social associations. IDENTIFYING AND VALUING MOUNTAIN RESOURCES. We'll walk through the process of developing strategies with this group so as to better explain the who, what, and why of strategies. E-mail address: [email protected], Jodha, N.S. E-mail sent to the Mountain Forum electronic conference. Therefore, a critical step in motivating conservation and sustainable use is to understand existing patterns of ownership in order to define more clearly the relationship between stakeholders and mountain resources. Solutions, therefore, must include all stakeholders, for, when they recognize that it is in their personal and collective best interests, they themselves will begin to drive the process. Background paper in support of the global NGO Consultation on the Mountain Agenda. Workers will benefit during the $12.6* billion construction project. The mechanisms share three critical features: they estimate and capture full cost values for a range of mountain resources; they identify clear ownership, rights and responsibilities; and they introduce economic incentives so that solutions are introduced and implemented by stakeholders and are sustainable over the long term. Develop your plan! Lima, Peru. The incentives for individuals to act collectively rather than independently encourage stakeholders to return to the table whenever necessary to renegotiate fragile and tenuous partnerships and alliances. Rostow's theory can be classified as "top-down," or one that emphasizes a trickle-down modernization effect from urban industry and western influence to develop a country as a whole. Promote economic growth through innovation. Mountains and people. E-mail correspondence. Therefore, canals, tube wells should be constructed to provide better irrigation facilities for the security of crops. An accurate valuation of mountain resources, however, is not sufficient. A performance management system helps you develop a method for accurate and effective performance reviews that can help assess where performance stands, as well as provide a roadmap to where you want to go. Tietenberg, T. 1996. Price, M.F., Moss, L.A.G. The higher a location is above sea level, the colder it is. On average, an undocumented individual has about 8% of their income go to taxes. Then it curves north- and eastward through northern Italy, Switzerland Liechtenstein, southern Germany, Austria and Slovenia. Communication and Outreach: Develop a strong communication strategy so that your project results can be shared with a large audience. 1997. For a country to become rich, they must have reliable institutes. Develop resonsible … United States, Exclusive legal rights to the production and sale of high-quality, locally resource, Community forest user groups in Makalu-Barun Conservation Area, Nepal, Legal rights to develop a piece of property which can be traded on the Economic development is the main body supported by sustainable development. In B. Messerli & J.D. A well thought communication strategy can avoid last minute rush of … Price, M.F.
2020 how can mountains be used to develop economically