Classroom climate refers to the specific instructional environments cultivated by individual teachers. The development of school well-being in secondary school: High academi... Empathetic and Collaborative Climate in the Classroom, Astor, R. A., Benbenisty, R., Estrada, J. N. (, Astor, R. A., Guerra, N., Van Acker, R. (, Beets, M. W., Flay, B. R., Vuchinich, S., Acock, A. C., Li, K., Allred, C. (, Benninga, J. S., Berkowitz, M. W., Kuehn, P., Smith, K. (, Birkett, M., Espelage, D. L., Koenig, B. W. (, Blum, R. W., McNeely, C. A., Rinehart, P. M. (, Bradshaw, C., Koth, C., Thornton, L., Leaf, P. (, Brand, S., Felner, R., Shim, M., Seitsinger, A., Dumas, T. (, Brookmeyer, K. A., Fanti, K. A., Henrich, C. C. (, Brookover, W., Beady, C., Flood, P., Schweitzer, J., Wisenbaker, J. School climate is a group phenomenon that reflects the school community’s norms, goals and values, and school climate emerges based on ways in which students, parents and school staff experience school life. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(10), 823–832. School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Climate Schools is the most innovative and engaging way to empower students to gain knowledge about their health and wellbeing. (, Wang, M. T., Selman, R. L., Dishion, T. J., Stormshak, E. A. For more on measuring school climate, visit the School Climate Measurement page. Positive school climate also enhances teacher retention. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. (, Nansel, T., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simmons-Morton, B., Schmidt, P. (, Osher, D., Bear, G. B., Sprague, J. R., Doyle, W. (, Ostroff, C., Kinicky, A. J., Tamkins, M. M. (, Payton, J., Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. B., Taylor, R. D., Schellinger, K. B. Gottfredson, G. D., & Gottfredson, D. C. (2001). School climate has many aspects. Climate change research at the Nicholas School encompasses a broad range of fields, including air quality, human and social impacts, ecosystems, global warming, atmospheric science, climatology, climate modeling, sustainability, climate policy, geothermal dynamics and land use planning. Research findings have also shown that a negative school climate can have detrimental effects on students' psychological and social-emotional well-being, leading to mental health problems. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. Schools that measured strong in most supports were 10 times as likely as schools with one or two strengths to show substantial gains in reading and mathematics. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. School climate refers to the quality and types of interactions that take place between and among young people and adults in a school. Remedial and Special Education, 28(6), 325–339. Various scales have been used, with their different sub-scales flowing from different articulations of the construct. Children’s social and scholastic lives in kindergarten: Related spheres of influence? ), Handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice (pp. Van Eck, Kathryn, Stacy R. Johnson. B., Perry, T. E., Smylie, M. A. Some researchers use the concept of  creating conditions for learning in speaking about school climate, meaning that students are supported, students are socially capable, students are safe, and students are challenged. Background/Context: Educators have written about and studied school climate for 100 years. The report details a two-year exploratory, mixed-methods research study on the disciplinary practices and climate of schools serving K–8 students in the School District of Philadelphia (SDP). By continuing to browse Cyber bullying: An old problem in a new guise? ED School Climate Surveys (EDSCLS). Surveillance summaries, Social and emotional education: Core principles and practices, Social, emotional, ethical and academic education: Creating a climate for learning, participation in democracy and well-being, School climate and culture improvement: A prosocial strategy that recognizes, educates, and supports the whole child and the whole school community, School climate reform and bully prevention: A data driven strategy that mobilizes the “whole village” to learn and work together to prevent bullying and promote a culture of Upstanders, School climate: Research, policy, teacher education and practice, Setting events and challenging behaviors in the classroom: Incorporating contextual factors into effective intervention plans, Comer’s school development program in Chicago: A theory-based evaluation, A retrospective study of school safety conditions in high schools using the Virginia Threat Assessment Guidelines versus alternative approaches, Violence in school environment: 1: State of play, University of Oregon Center for Education Policy and Management, College of Education, Convivencia escolar: Fortaleza de la communidad educative y proteccion ante la conflictividad escolar, School coexistence: Strength of the educational community and protection against school conflict, School climate, school improvement and site-based management, The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions, Fear, victimization, and stress among urban public school teachers, Negative effects of traditional middle schools on students’ motivation, Social competence, social support, and academic achievement in minority, low-income, urban elementary school children, Supportive school climate and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence, Shared expectations: Creating a joint vision for urban schools, A multilevel analysis of student perceptions of school climate: The effect of social and academic risk factors, Whole school improvement and restructuring as prevention and promotion: Lessons from STEP and the project on high-performance learning communities, Powerful learning environments: The critical link between school and classroom cultures. Research suggests that a positive school climate can lead to a significant decrease in the likelihood of crime, aggression, and violent behavior. Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). Peer-reviewed educational research has proven that positive youth development, academic achievement and effective risk prevention efforts are closely related to positive school climate. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Research shows that positive school climate is tied to better attendance rates, test scores, promotion rates and graduation rates. The GLSEN National School Climate Survey* is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students’ well-being. The 206 citations used in this review include experimental studies, correlational studies, literature reviews, and other descriptive studies. Despite this limitation, three sub-factors of the construct (Moos and Moos… The multiplicity of definitions for school climate has led to confusion and hindered research progress (Hoy and Hannum, 1997; Thapa et al., 2013; Ramelow et al., 2015; Wang and Degol, 2015; Lee et al., 2017). Suicide patterns and association with predictors among Rhode Island public high school students: A latent class analysis. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., Hawkins, J. D. (, Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., Oesterie, S., Fleming, C. B., Hawkins, J. D. (, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . This lack of definitional consensus has meant that school climate is measured inconsistently (Thapa et al., 2013). Parent and Educator Guide to School Climate Resources. The contents of the National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments Web site were assembled under contracts from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students to the American Institutes for Research (AIR), Contract Numbers ED-ESE-12-O-0035 and ED-ESE-16-A-0002. Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. Violence against teachers is a little-known but significant problem. (, Brookover, W. B., Schweitzer, J. H., Schneider, J. M., Beady, C. H., Flood, P. K., Wisenbaker, J. M. (, Brown, J. L., Jones, S. M., LaRusso, M. D., Aber, J. L. (, Brown, P. M., Corrigan, M. W., Higgins-D’Alessandro, A. Second, school climate could be affected by "random temporal factors," whereas differences across schools in school climate might reflect true difference in school climate; the longitudinal association could "understate" the longer-term impact of changing school climate on … Ripski, M. B., & Gregory, A. Login failed. Academic emphasis of urban elementary schools and student achievement in reading and mathematics: A multilevel analysis. The search for school climate: A review of the research, School violence and theoretically atypical schools: The principal’s centrality in orchestrating safe schools. (, Fan, W., Williams, C. M., Corkin, D. M. (, Felner, R. D., Favazza, A., Shim, M., Brand, S., Gu, K., Noonan, N. (, Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., Catalano, R. F., Harachi, T. W., Mazza, J. J., Gruman, D. H. (, Fonagy, P., Twemlow, S. W., Vernberg, E. M., Nelson, J. M., Dill, E. J., Little, T. D., Sargent, J. Jiang, Y., Perry, D. K., & Hesser, J. E. (2010). This site uses cookies. School climate has been studied with a multitude of variables, methodologies, theories, and models, resulting in a not easily defined body of research. Examining Perceptions of School Safety Strategies, School Climate, and Violence. Defining a framework for understanding school climate can help educators identify key areas to focus on to create safe and supportive climates in their schools. Creating a supportive school climate—and decreasing suspensions and expulsions—requires close attention to the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of all students. Background/Context: Educators have written about and studied school climate for 100 years. The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) facilitates analysis and prediction of Earth system change for use in a range of practical applications of direct relevance, benefit and value to society. How can we improve school safety research? A Review of School Climate Research 359 be assessed. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Amrit Thapa, Jonathan Cohen, Shawn Guffey, and Ann Higgins-D’Alessandro, First Published Online: September 1, 2013. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. American Educational Research Association,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, (, Clifford, M., Menon, R., Condon, C., Hornung (, Cohen, J., McCabe, E. M., Michelli, N. M., Pickeral, T. (, Cook, T. D., Murphy, R. F., Hunt, H. D. (, Cornell, D., Sheras, P., Gregory, A., Fan, X. A mixed method investigation of student experiences and school responses, Promoting student connectedness to school: Evidence from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, The expect respect project: Creating a positive elementary school climate, School violence: Bullying behaviors and the psychosocial school environment in middle schools, Factors that predict teachers staying in, leaving, or transferring from the special education classroom, Student and teacher perceptions of school climate: A multilevel exploration of patterns of discrepancy, Building citizenship: How student voice in service-learning develops civic values, A meta-analytic inquiry into the relationship between selected risk factors and problem behavior. To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. Lean Library can solve it. A positive school climate is the product of a school’s attention to fostering safety; promoting a supportive academic, disciplinary, and physical environment; and encouraging and maintaining respectful, trusting, and caring relationships throughout the school community no matter the setting—from Pre-K/Elementary School to higher education. McNeely, C. A., Nonnemaker, J. M., & Blum, R. W. (2002). © 2020 American Institutes for Research  Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 347–356. The GLSEN National School Climate Survey* is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students’ well-being. The U.S. Department of Education (ED) has prioritized research about school climate and the use of such research to develop more effective policy and school practices. Research has shown that positive school climate is tied to high or improving attendance rates, test scores, promotion rates, and graduation rates. The strength of the linkages between school climate and academic achievement make it essential that all students have the opportunity to attend schools that provide a safe and supportive environment where they can thrive and fully engage in their studies. Category: School Climate Findings from Student Responses to Questions about Mental Health and Suicide from the 2019 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey In spring 2019, the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) administered the Philadelphia YRBS to a random sample of high school students at 25 randomly selected District schools. Stewart, E. B. Peer sexual harassment victimization at school: The roles of student characteristics, cultural affiliation, and school factors, Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective, Effects of an elementary school intervention on students’ “connectedness” to school and social adjustment during middle school, School climate and teachers’ beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: A diffusion of innovations model, The relationship of character education implementation and academic achievement in elementary schools, LGB and questioning students in schools: The moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes, Harassment and abuse in school environment. School belonging and the African American adolescent: What do we know and where should we go? (, Haahr, J. H., Nielsen, T. K., Hansen, M. E., Jakobsen, S. T. (, Hallinan, M. T., Kubitschek, W. N., Liu, G. (, Haynes, N. M., Emmons, C., Ben-Avie, M. (, Higgins-D’Alessandro, A., Sakwarawich, A. The Summit assembles internationally recognized innovators together with practicing educators and consultants who are currently finding success with cutting-edge best practices and research-based methodologies in … comprise school climate and the prohibitive nature of assessing the perceptions of each one, research indicates that interventions focused on increasing students’ sense of connectedness or belonging to the school may be an effective means of decreasing behavioral and emotional Education Levels. MacNeil, A. J., Prater, D. L., & Busch, S. (2009). Research shows a direct link between students’ success and the school environment in which . Multiple responses, promising results: Evidence-based, nonpunitive alternatives to zero tolerance. To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field empty. (, Wolke, D., Woods, S., Bloomfield, L., Karstadt, L. (, Youniss, J., Bales, S., Christmas-Best, V., Diversi, M., McLaughlin, M., Silbereisen, R. (, Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, R. P., Walberg, H. J. Aiming to change and reinvigorate the school climate around alcohol and other drug education, our modules provide curriculum-consistent health education courses proven to reduce harm and improve student well-being. (, Hoge, D. R., Smit, E. K., Hanson, S. L. (, Hoy, W. K., Hannum, J., Tschannen-Moran, M. (, Jia, Y., Way, N., Ling, G., Yoshikawa, H., Chen, X., Hughes, D., Lu, Z. In their review of the school climate research, Thapa, Cohen, Guffey, and Higgins-D’Alessandro (2013) found a continued lack of well-defined and research-based models for school climate, because fewer studies examined the effects of school climate within . The National School Climate Council and many researchers have established four factors of school climate. The surveying tool is free of charge and can be downloaded on the NCSSLE website. The field demands rigorous and empirically sound research that focuses on relating specific aspects and activities of interventions to changes in specific components of school climate. Climate scientists and education specialists collaborated to develop a curriculum for middle and high school science classrooms. School climate is based on patterns of people’s experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures. B., Peterson, R., McKelvey, J., Forde, S., Gallini, S. (, Sterbinksky, A., Ross, S. M., Redfield, D. (, Swearer, S. M., Espelage, D. L., Vallancourt, T., Hymel, S. (, Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Oswald, H., Schulz, W. (, Twemlow, S. W., Fonagy, P., Gies, M. L., Evans, R., Ewbank, R. (, Virtanen, M., Kivimaki, M., Luopa, P., Vahtera, J., Elovainio, M., Jokela, J., Pietikainen, M. (, Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., Walberg, H. J. Providing additional feedback is optional. 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street, NW Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Rethinking Discipline . Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. (, Koth, C. W., Bradshaw, C. P., Leaf, P. J. Roles. (, Kasen, S. N., Johnson, P. N., Cohen, P. N. (, Kerr, D., Ireland, E., Lopes, J., Craig, R., Cleaver, E. (, Kosciw, J. G., Diaz, E. M., Greytak, E. A. View or download all the content the society has access to. School climate includes the cultures, norms, practices, and organizational characteristics of schools, and how those factors impact student development. Teachers and students deserve school environments that are safe, supportive, and conducive to teaching and learning. School structural characteristics, student effort, peer associations, and parental involvement: The influence of school- and individual-level factors on academic achievement. This systematic mixed- methods literature review examined relationships between the psychosocial school climate and adolescents’ mental health, mapping the scope and quality of recent research. While most resources and information could be beneficial to all, there are some materials specific to particular roles in making improvements to the learning environment. Safe, supportive, and effective schools: Promoting school success to reduce school violence. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? (, Ruus, V., Veisson, M., Leino, M., Ots, L., Pallas, L., Sarv, E., Veisson, A. Grayson, J. L., & Alvarez, H. K. (2008). School characteristics related to high school dropout rates. Negative school climate is linked to lower student achievement and graduation rates, and it creates opportunities for violence, bullying, and even suicide. Ph: (800) 258-8413 |, Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Accessibility Statement. Climate Research A major environmental journal, CR invites papers on all aspects of the interactions of climate with organisms, ecosystems and human societies. (. Sharing links are not available for this article. Literature in this field sug- The school climate tradition was informed by organizational and school effectiveness research.10 School climate includes the interactions of all members of the school community; larger organizational patterns including culture, structure, and resources; and how individuals experience and appraise Promoting school connectedness: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 12(4), 313–344. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Measuring School Climate: Using Existing Data Tools on Climate and Effectiveness to Inform School Organizational Health Rachel E. Durham, Amie Bettencourt, and Faith Connolly Executive Summary Despite—or perhaps due to—the lack of consensus on its definition, there is abundant interest in and research on school climate. High-achieving Black high school students’ experiences with resources, racial climate, and resilience, An empirical examination of a model of social climate in elementary schools, Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Paper presented at the Association for Moral Education annual conference, Student interracial interactions and perceptions of school as a community, Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eighth-grade, School climate as a factor in student adjustment and achievement, Misbehavior among school children: The role of the school in strategies for prevention, The second side of the educational coin: Prosocial development, School experiences predicting changes in self-esteem of sixth and seventh-grade students, Organizational climate and student achievement: A parsimonious and longitudinal view, Teachers’ sense of efficacy and the organizational health of schools, L’environnement socio-éducatif à l’écolesecondaire : un modèlethéorique pour guider l’évaluation du milieu, The educational environment in the secondary schools: A theoretical model to guide the assessment of the environment, The influence of student perceptions of school climate on socio-emotional and academic adjustment: A comparison of Chinese and American adolescents, Student achievement and elementary teachers’ perceptions of school climate, Connectedness and school violence: A framework for developmental interventions, The cycle of violence and disconnection among rural middle school students: Teacher disconnectedness as a consequence of violence, The impact of social emotional climate on student psychopathology, Understanding what works and what doesn’t in reducing adolescent risk taking. In their review of the school climate research, Thapa, Cohen, Guffey, and Higgins-D’Alessandro (2013) found a continued lack of well-defined and research-based models for school climate, because fewer studies examined the effects of school climate within . (, Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A positive school climate is critically related to school success. It strives for the same high quality characteristics of other Inter-Research journals. school climate encompasses a large portion of a student’s school experience, and can be con-nected to almost any issue of concern in school, along with the outcome of expected of educa-tion. Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., et al. Journal of School Violence, 8(4), 355–375. According to the Safe and Supportive Schools Model (see below), which was developed by a national panel of researchers and other experts, positive school climate involves. Positive school climate has been shown to contribute to student success and school experiences in many important ways. The School Climate & Culture Forum is held as part of the Innovative Schools Summit. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Relationships between bullying school climate and student risk behaviors, Development as the aim of education: The Dewey view, A multilevel study of predictors of student perceptions of school climate: The effect of classroom-level factors, Using multilevel analyses to assess school effectiveness: A study of Dutch secondary schools, School social climate and individual differences in vulnerability to psychopathology among middle school students, Perceived school climate and difficulties in the social adjustment of middle school students. Teachers as builders of respectful school climates: Implications for adolescent drug use norms and depressive symptoms in high school, High suspension schools and dropout rates for Black and White students, A multilevel model of the social distribution of high school achievement, Hostile school climates: Explaining differential risk of student exposure to disruptive learning environments in high school, Examining school connectedness as a mediator of school climate effects, Hierarchical linear modeling of student and school effects on academic achievement, The development of academic competence among adolescents who bully and who are bullied, The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement, Closing the achievement gap: The association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes, School climate for transgender youth. These areas overlap in many existing frameworks of school climate, and it is critical that all three areas be considered as a single issue in policy and practice. School climate is a broad concept that involves several aspects of the educational experience and may be described as the quality and character of school life. This brief describes how school climate and SEL can and should be integrated in future research and practice for healthy schools, allowing the two previously separate concepts to work hand-in-hand. 2,4,16,30,31,32,33 Specifically, effective antibullying programs incorporate: A school-wide focus on increased supervision and the promotion of prosocial behavior. A cluster randomized controlled trial of child-focused psychiatric consultation and a school systems-focused intervention to reduce aggression, Creating a peaceful school learning environment: The impact of an antibullying program on educational attainment in elementary schools, Relationships between school-level and classroom-level environment, National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, The relationship between forms of instruction, achievement and perceptions of classroom climate, School climate and implementation of the pathways study, Relational aggression at school: Associations with school safety and social climate, Schools make a difference: Evidence, criticism and new directions, The relationship of school belonging and friends’ values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students, School climate predictors of school disorder: Results from national delinquency prevention in school, School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model, Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning, “Tolerating” adolescent needs: Moving beyond zero tolerance policies in high school, The relationship of school structure and support to suspension rates for Black and White high school students, Teacher safety and authoritative school climate in high schools, Authoritative school discipline: High school practices associated with lower student bullying and victimization, School climate and implementation of a preventive intervention, Mo’ money, mo’ problems?

school climate research

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